Matthew 2:4-6: The chief priests and scribes knew from Scripture that the Christ was Israel's Shepherd. They knew He was to be born into the world (not descend in a chariot) and His birthplace would be Bethlehem. As far as they were concerned the prophets were clear and they followed them to just the right conclusions.
Matthew 4:6: Satan is clear that Psalm 91 concerns Jesus. Christ is the One who dwells in the shadow of the Most High and who treads on the lion and the serpent (Ps 91:13) - though the devil doesn't go on to quote that part!
John 5:18: The Jews knew that Christ's claim to be the Son was a claim to equality with God. They didn't say "You make yourself to be almost as divine as God". Even these enemies of Jesus believed that the Father and Son are equal within the one Godhead.
John 8:56-59: When Jesus claims that Abraham saw "my day" they clearly understood it to be a physical encounter - hence they exclaim "You're not yet 50". The know Jesus is claiming pre-existence and they know it's a capital offence.
Mark 14:60-64: The high priest was well aware 'the Christ', 'Son of God' and 'Son of Man' are all interchangeable titles and that claiming them means blasphemy.
Any more you can think of?